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An Expert’s Guide to Training Evaluation: Requirements, Models, Levels, and Challenges


Business organizations nowadays utilize a variety of training methods to ensure that they keep improving. Now, within an organization, employees improve their capabilities by learning new skills. This is why the process of evaluating these training methods is particularly vital for the success of the training programs. Let us explore this process of evaluation in greater detail below.

Understanding the Different Levels of Training Evaluation
The different levels that encompass the process of training evaluation are:


This type of evaluation is used primarily to determine whether learners find the content:

  • Engaging
  • Relevant
  • Appropriate

The propriety of the content primarily refers to whether employees can utilize the knowledge gained in a real-life scenario. This type of evaluation generally involves a questionnaire that quizzes participants regarding their feedback after attending the session, which further helps gauge the success of the same.


The learning evaluation method involves measuring what participants learned during the session via a:

  • Test
  • Series of multiple choice questions with immediate feedback and scoring by computers or an instructor

The level of difficulty they face in answering the questions posed to them is directly proportional to the knowledge they gain from it, as their inability to answer the question spurs them to learn more.


This method focuses on behavioral-level attempts to measure whether the knowledge gained in the classroom can be applied or used in real-life situations outside the classroom. It focuses on behavioral changes that may occur due to learning outcomes from training programs. You will want to look at how much time participants spent on each module or assignment and their performance on tests and exams that were part of the training program (if these were required).


The result-oriented training method considers the impact of behavioral changes brought about by training programs on employees’ performance. It focuses on measurable outcomes of training programs such as a/an:

  • Increased production rate
  • Higher sales volume
  • Improved customer satisfaction etc.

This evaluation therefore measures the degree of success enjoyed by the training program by checking whether it achieved its intended goals or not. It also looks at whether or not there are any measurable differences between before and after results (or pre-test and post-test scores).

Training Evaluation: What is Required?

Now, how do you go about the training evaluation process?

1.Establishing objectives

You need to write down your overall goal for the session and then break it down into smaller goals to help you achieve the larger one. The objectives should be:

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Time-bound

2.Identifying stakeholders

Stakeholders are those who have an interest in or a direct influence on the success of your program. You conduct surveys before starting your evaluation to see your program’s success from your stakeholders’ perspective.

3.Designing an evaluation plan
The evaluation plan is a document that describes the:

  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Procedures for evaluating the training.

It should include the following:

  • Specific evaluation methods
  • Levels
  • People responsible
  • Time frame in which the evaluation will occur
  • The resources will be required to conduct it

4.Collecting data

It includes collecting data to examine various metrics of the training to determine its positioning and relevance. You can measure it with a battery of tests like:

  • Discussions
  • Feedback questionnaires
  • Opinion polls
  • Gathering outcomes etc

5.Analyzing data

Analyzing data helps you to better understand:

  • Which goals were met
  • The criteria for the training, etc.

6.Reporting the findings
A report should include information about the following:

  • How well the program met its goals
  • What contributing factors resulted in success or failure
  • What recommendations or changes for future programs could be made or implemented, respectively, etc

7.Monitor and follow-up

Training evaluation is an ongoing process needing constant monitoring and follow-up to ensure that the training results in the desired change. It should be carried out regularly, at least quarterly, to assess how well the changes are being implemented and whether additional training needs to be provided. Now that we’ve covered everything about training evaluation in the sections above, let us discuss the various examples of training evaluation models.

Training Evaluation Models

Each model has a different focus and purpose, so choosing the right one for your needs is essential. The following is a description of some standard training evaluation models:

1.Kirkpatrick Model

The Kirkpatrick Model is a framework for evaluating training. It provides a straightforward way to analyze:

  • User satisfaction
  • Learning outcomes
  • Behavior changes

The model is divided into four levels:

  • Reaction
  • Learning
  • Behavior
  • Results

This model provides a framework for collecting and analyzing information about training effectiveness and identifying areas for improvement and future planning needs. Business owners can refer to the Kirkpatrick four levels of evaluation pdf for further details on the same. In addition, the Kirkpatrick model measures how participants’ behaviors changed due to the training and whether or not their performance improved.

2.Phillips ROI Model

The Phillips ROI is an excellent model for measuring training programs’ return on investment (ROI). This model was initially modeled or based on the Kirk Patrick model and can evaluate training programs by calculating their financial impact on an organization’s bottom line. The results generated by this model will help you determine if a company needs to invest more in training or if an existing program should be discontinued for a cost-effective solution. This model involves 5 levels of training evaluation:

  • Reaction
  • Learning
  • Application and implementation of knowledge
  • Impact
  • ROI

It helps you calculate the following:

  • Cost savings using actual labor rates
  • Productivity improvement due to increased skills
  • How much less you will pay employees who leave due to a lack of skills or competencies
  • How much more you will charge clients who want experienced personnel

3.ADDIE Model

The ADDIE model is a systematic approach to instructional design and development that can be used in training programs. Its acronym stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. This model is often used as a framework for developing a training program. It is an instructional design framework that focuses on the following:

  • Gathering user needs
  • Defining learning objectives
  • Designing the instruction
  • Creating a presentation
  • Providing feedback

The first three phases are more technical and focus on creating the actual content of your training. The last two phases ensure that your audience:

  • Understands what they learned
  • Can apply it to their work environment

4.CIPP Model

The Continuous Improvement Process Model focuses on three aspects, namely the:

  • Learner
  • Instructor
  • Learning environment

It is a cyclical process that involves all three of those areas. This model stresses the importance of measuring multiple parameters simultaneously using numerous methods, such as:

  • Surveys
  • Observations
  • Interviews during training sessions to get an accurate picture of what works for your organization at any given time

The steps involved in this model involve the following:

1.Determining your learning needs, namely:

1.What are the goals of your training?
2.What do you want to learn?

2.Evaluating the instructor and the learning environment since you want to ensure that both are appropriate for your training and goals.

3.Assessing yourself to see where gaps in knowledge or skill sets may exist and how they need to be addressed before engaging in this type of training again (or perhaps even before attempting another level of training)

4.Determining what went well at the end of the training program

Let us now look at some of the challenges associated with training evaluation programs.

Challenges of Training Evaluation

Below are the challenges that you can face while evaluating a training program:

1.Time constraints

It takes a lot of time to conduct a thorough evaluation, and the pressure to get appropriate results promptly can make collecting all the necessary data really challenging.

2.Lack of resources

Many organizations need more resources to perform consistent evaluations promptly. At times, some training evaluations are conducted by individuals who lack expertise in training and development.

3.Difficulty measuring outcomes

Measuring whether a training program has succeeded is tough due to the possibility of different outcomes. The outcome is measured as a variation in:

  • Knowledge or skills
  • Productivity, etc.

4.Difficulty gathering feedback

Gathering participant feedback is hard because it requires them to provide opinions based on their experiences-positive or negative. This is difficult for people who don’t like to share their thoughts and feelings or who are not used to providing constructive criticism of others’ work.

5.Difficulty Interpreting Results

When you collect participant feedback, you often find no consensus about how effective your training was. It is difficult to interpret your results and decide what needs improvement or what should stay the same for future events.

6.Difficulty analyzing data

Collecting data from multiple sources can be challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, depending upon the number of trainees who participated in the training program being evaluated. If the instrument is not designed properly, it will:

  • Provide you with wrong results
  • Make it challenging to analyze the data collected

7.Resistance to change

Change is not always simple because people don’t like to embrace differences or variations in their life, especially when they follow a routine, as it’s an inherent part of their nature. It’s thus an arduous task to change people’s responses to different situations based on past interactions.

Gyrus Systems, The Ultimate LMS Solution

Gyrus Systems has become a leader in solving training evaluation challenges because we understand that every organization has unique needs for improving its training programs. By listening carefully to our client’s needs, we have developed an LMS solution that can be customized for any industry or company size, which helps you achieve your goals while saving time and money!

Wrapping Up

Therefore, any evaluation method in training has its pros and cons. In the end, you should determine the criticality of your training & the importance of measuring its effectiveness. Once you measure the data gained from the evaluation method you select, you can:

Use the data so that your training is more effective
Take actions (such as reducing spending for training programs) so that your investment will bring better results for your organization


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